GATE 2013 Answer Key for All Branches – EC, CS, ME, IN, CE, EE


Guys hope you all did the gate 2013 exam well. Some may feel difficult and some may feel easy, mostly its depends on your level of preparation. Few prepare well for the exam and could not do the exam well. These are all few categories of people but all are keen to know their results. So here i am sharing the gate 2013 answer key prepared from various gate coaching institute. Guys this answer key is not accurate, some answers in the key may be wrong, it is on your own risk.

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GATE 2013 Answer Key by GATE Forum

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Steps to To register a company as per Govt orders


To register a company, you need to first apply for a Director Identification Number (DIN) which can be done by filing eForm for acquiring the DIN. You would then need to acquire your Digital Certificate and register the same on the portal. Thereafter, you need to get the company name approved by the Ministry. Once the company name is approved , you can register the company by filing the incorporation form depending on the type of company

(Use quick links available on left panel in case steps are known)

Step 1 : Application For DIN

The concept of a Director Identification Number (DIN) has been introduced for the first time with the insertion of Sections 266A to 266G of Companies (Amendment) Act, 2006. As such, all the existing and intending Directors have to obtain DIN within the prescribed time-frame as notified.
You need to file eForm DIN-1 in order to obtain DIN. To get more information about the same click Director Identification Number

Step 2 : Acquire/ Register DSC

The Information Technology Act, 2000 provides for use of Digital Signatures on the documents submitted in electronic form in order to ensure the security and authenticity of the documents filed electronically. This is the only secure and authentic way that a document can be submitted electronically. As such, all filings done by the companies under MCA21 e-Governance programme are required to be filed with the use of Digital Signatures by the person authorised to sign the documents.

Acquire DSC -A licensed Certifying Authority (CA) issues the digital signature. Certifying Authority (CA) means a person who has been granted a license to issue a digital signature certificate under Section 24 of the Indian IT-Act 2000.

Register DSC -Role check for Indian companies is to be implemented in the MCA application. Role check can be performed only after the signatories have registered their Digital signature certificates (DSC) with MCA. To know about it click Register a DSC

Step 3 : New User Registration

To file an eForm or to avail any paid service on MCA portal, you are first required to register yourself as a user in the relevant user category, such as registered and business user. To register now click New User Registration

Step 4 : Incorporate a Company

Apply for the name of the company to be registered by filing Form1A for the same. After that depending upon the proposed company type file required incorporation forms listed below.

  • Form 1 : Application or declaration for incorporation of a company
  • Form 18 : Notice of situation or change of situation of registered office
  • Form 32 : Particulars of appointment of managing director, directors, manager and secretary and the changes among them or consent of candidate to act as a managing director or director or manager or secretary of a company and/ or undertaking to take and pay for qualification shares

Once the form has been approved by the concerned official of the Ministry, you will receive an email regarding the same and the status of the form will get changed to Approved. To know more about eFiling process click "All About eFiling"

Steps to be taken to get incorporated a private limited Company


Steps to be taken to get incorporated a private limited Company:
Select, in order of preference, a few suitable names, not less than four, indicative of the main objects of the company. Naming Guidelines
Ensure that the name does not resemble the name of any other company already registered and also does not violate the provisions of Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950.
Apply to the concerned ROC to ascertain the availability of a name in the General Rules and Forms along with a fee of Rs.1000/- If the proposed name is not available apply for a fresh name on the same application.
Arrange for the drafting of the Memorandum and Articles of Association by the solicitors, the vetting of the same by the ROC and the printing of the same.
Arrange for the stamping of the Memorandum and Articles with the appropriate stamp duty.
Get the Memorandum and Articles signed by at least two subscribers in his own hand, his father’s name, occupation, address and the number of shares subscribed for and witnessed by atleast one person.
Ensure that the Memorandum and Articles are dated after the date of stamping.
Get the following forms duly filled up and signed:

o Declaration of Compliance
o Notice of the situation of the registered office of the company
o Particulars of the Director, Manager or Secretary

Present the following documents to the ROC with the filing fee and the registration fee:

o The stamped and signed copies of the Memorandum and Articles of Association (3 copies).
o Form-1, 18 & 32 in duplicate.
o Any agreement referred to in the M & A.
o Any agreement proposed to be entered into with any individual for appointment as Managing
or whole time Director.
o Name availability letter issued by the ROC.
o Power of Attorney from the subscribers in favour of any person for making corrections on their
behalf in the documents and papers filed for registration.
o Pay the Registration and Filing Fee by Demand Draft/Banker’s Cheque if it exceeds Rs.1000/-
o Obtain the Certificate of Incorporation from ROC.

Steps to be taken to get incorporated a public limited Company:
Consent of Directors to act as such in Form No.29.
Arrange for payment of application and allotment money by Directors on shares taken or agreed to be taken.
File the Statement in Lieu of Prospectus with the ROC in schedule-iii of the Companies Act.
File a declaration in Form-20 duly signed by one of the Directors.
Obtain the Certificate of Commencement of Business.

Establishing a Private Limited Company in India


Private Limited Company
• About Private Limited Company
• Advantages Private Limited Company
• Requirements in Formation of a Private Limited Company
• Major Steps involved for incorporation of a company
Getting DSC
Getting DIN
Name Search and application for Name Availability.
Drafting of Bye Laws (MOA & AOA)
List of documents and forms required in Company Registration
• Various Forms to be filed & circumstances
Advantages of Private Limited Company
The advantages of incorporating a private limited company are as follows:
1 Your Risk in the business minimizes:
The major mistake committed by small business people is mixing of business money and personal money. Income and debts from the business are mixed with personal funds. If the business is profitable proprietor will be benefited. If the business incur loss proprietor will be affected.
When you are creating a private limited company, what you are doing is that, you are creating a lifeless separate entity. You are personally not associating with the business but professionally associating with the business. You need not pay the debts personally. The owner and share holders are not personally liable. Hence it is called Limited Liability Company. Your responsibility is limited. Hence by creating a Limited Liability Company, your personal risk is minimized to the larger extent.
2 Your Tax burden Reduces:
While Sole proprietorship and partnerships pay income tax, Companies pay Corporation tax on their taxable profits. There are many allowances and tax- deductible costs that can be offset against the profits of a company. That means Tax would be paid after deducting many costs incurred by you. In addition to that the current level of Corporation Tax is lower than income tax rates.
3 Your Social appeal and reputation enhances:
With the formation of company, you are declaring to the people that you are serious about the business and its continuity. Lending from the banks is also easier. Banks provide loans against the security of the company’s assets. The greatest advantage is that you can build right team of people. Quality workforce is not hesitant to be part of the company, because of their sense of security.
4 Your big dream realizes:
Big project requires big investment. Few individual efforts cannot generate trust, to get the required investments. Qualified people also not show interest in you. Formation of private limited company multiplies the borrowing capacity of the organization and also secures the deposits and loans from Banks and financial institutions.
5 Your multiple assets bring multiple advantages:
You play multiple roles and get multiple advantages. As a director you receive remuneration, as a share holder you receive dividend, as a lessor you receive rent etc.
6 Your name remains in the history:
People may join or leave the company, but the company is permanent. Whether or not you are there your dream enterprise exists eternally, unless it is dissolved.
7 Your Wealth creation skills leverages:
The secret to wealth building is making use of human resources and finical resources. This blending of the resources is possible only with the formation of the company. You can accumulate huge investment from the share holders and business debt from the lenders. Share holders do not fear much, because their risk is limited to the extent of their share.
8 Your Transfer of the company is easy:
In case you want get away from the company you can do it very easily. You can transfer the entire share holding to the intended people as an ongoing concern. This change of ownership saves the time and money and also stamp duty. The major disadvantage of the private limited company is maintenance and cost of accounts. You also need to follow various statutory regulations. Before taking the decision weigh the pros and cons of forming a private limited company. But your big dreams not become reality without formation of the Company.
About Private Limited Company
Company Law defines a private company as one which—
1 has a minimum paid-up share capital of Rs. 1 Lakh or such higher capital as may be prescribed and
2 by its Articles of Association
3 restricts the right of transfer of its share
4 limits the number of its members to 50 which will not include:
a members who are employees of the company and
b members who are ex-employees of the company and were members while in such employment and who have continued to be members after ceasing to be employees
5 prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares or debentures of the company and
6 prohibits any invitation or acceptance of deposits from persons other than its members, directors or their relatives.
Requirements in Formation of a Private Limited Company
Minimum Requirement to be fulfilled to Form a Private Limited Company:
Two promoters (Shareholders)
Two directors
Authorised capital of Rs.1,00,000
DIN (Director Identification Number) for all the Directors
DSC (Digital Signature Certificate) for one of the Directors is required.
Note: The directors and shareholders can be same person
Know About Digital Signature
What is a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC)?

The Information Technology Act, 2000 provides for use of Digital Signatures on the documents submitted in electronic form in order to ensure the security and authenticity of the documents filed electronically. This is the only secure and authentic way that a document can be submitted electronically. As such, all filings done by the companies under MCA21 e-Governance programme are required to be filed with the use of Digital Signatures by the person authorised to sign the documents.

Pay Attention

You can use only the valid Digital Signatures issued to you. However it is not lawful to use digital signature of some one else by way of impersonation.

Certification Agencies:

Office of the Controller of Certification Agencies (CCA) under the provisions of IT Act, 2000 appoints Certification Agencies. A total of seven Certification Agencies have been authorised by the CCA to issue the Digital Signature Certificates (DSCs). The details of these Certification Agencies are available on the portal of the Ministry of Corporate affairs.

Class of DSC:

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has stipulated a Class-II or above category signing certificate for e-filings under MCA21. A person who already has the specified DSC for any other application can use the same for filings under MCA21 and is not required to obtain a fresh DSC.

Getting DIN

The concept of a Director Identification Number (DIN) has been introduced for the first time with the insertion of Sections 266A to 266G of Companies (Amendment) Act, 2006. As such, all the existing and intending Directors have to obtain DIN within the prescribed time-frame as notified.

Before you fill-in applications for DIN please remember following common causes of REJECTIONS:
Filing application for IEC.
Applicant’s name and father’s name mentioned in abbreviated form. – The Name should be expanded even if the ID proof contains the name in abbreviated form.
Mismatch in the Name and Father’s Name in DIN form with the ID (Identity) proof enclosed. – Any mismatch in Name, including spelling mistake, may lead to rejection of application. Minor spelling deviations in the father’s name may be accepted, if such deviations do not materially impact the name.
Prefixes like Mr. / Ms. / Kumari / Shri etc. used in the applicant’s name.
Residence proofs like: Bank Statements, Electricity Bill, Telephone Bill, Utility bills etc. submitted are older than 2 months of submitting the application for verification OR such documents are in the name of some other person, for example father or spouse.
The supporting documents are not duly attested i.e. Name, Designation, Membership/ Practicing certificate number etc. are not clearly indicated. – If the seal/ stamp do not contain membership/ practicing certificate number, same may be recorded by hand.
Passport / Driving License / Identity proofs etc attached are expired. – Only such documents which are currently valid should be attached.
Name Search and application for Name Availability.
The first step in the formation of a company is the approval of the name by the Registrar of Companies (ROC) in the State/Union Territory in which the company will maintain its Registered Office. This approval is provided subject to certain conditions: for instance
There should not be an existing company by the same name.
The last words in the name are required to be "Private Ltd."
The application should mention at least four suitable names of the proposed company, in order of preference.
Once a name is approved, it is valid for a period of sixty days, within which time Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association together with miscellaneous documents should be filed. If one is unable to do so, an application may be made for renewal of name by paying additional fees.

The following information is required for seeking name approval.

1 Name & address of the applicant (one of the promoters) for communications to be made by Registrar of Companies (ROC).
2 Proposed name of the company and Alternative names (4to 6 names)
3 Names of the proposed first directors – minimum 2.
4 Addresses, dates of birth, father’s name of the proposed directors
5 Authorised Share Capital – minimum INR 100000
6 Main objects of the company in brief.
7 Address of Registered office of the proposed company. If a place is not finalized, this information can be given at the time of incorporation.
8 Address of the nearest police station of the proposed registered address of the company.
Drafting of Bye Laws (MOA & AOA)
The Memorandum of Association is a document that sets out the constitution of the company. It contains, amongst others, the main objectives, incidental or ancillary objectives for the attainment of the main objectives, other objectives and the scope of activity of the company and also describes the relationship of the company with the outside world.

The Articles of Association contain the rules and regulations of the company for the management of its internal affairs. While the Memorandum specifies the objectives and purposes for which the Company has been formed, the Articles lay down the rules and regulations for achieving those objectives and purposes. It also states the authorized share capital of the proposed company and the names of its first / permanent directors.

Required Various Documents/ Forms
Following documents/ forms need to be submitted along with requisite fee which is based on the amount of authorized capital as under:-
1 Form 1A: Availability of Name for a New Company.
2 Form No.1: Application or declaration for incorporation of a company along with MOA & AOA
3 Form No.18: This is a form to be filed by one of the directors of the company informing the ROC the registered office of the proposed company.
4 Form No.29: This is a consent obtained from all the proposed directors of the proposed company to act as directors of the proposed company. (Not required in case of private company).
5 Form No. 32 – This is a form stating the fact of appointment of the proposed directors on the board of directors from the date of incorporation of the proposed company and is signed by one of the proposed directors.
6 Name approval letter in original.
7 Power of Attorney signed by all the subscribers of MOA authorizing one of the subscribers or any other person to act on their behalf for the purpose of incorporation and accepting the certificate of incorporation.
8 Power of Attorney in case of a subscriber who has appointed another person to sign the MOA on his behalf. Filing fees as may be applicable
9 Any agreement referred to in the Memorandum & Articles.
10 Any agreement proposed to be entered into with any individual for appointment as Managing or whole time Director.
11 Declaration of Compliance by an advocate or company secretary or chartered accountant or director, manager or secretary of the company
12 Power of Attorney authorizing a person, on behalf of subscribers, any documents and papers filed for registration. The power of attorney should be given on Non-Judicial stamp paper of appropriate value and shall be submitted to the Registrar
Getting Incorporation Certificate
The ROC will issue a Certificate of Incorporation after careful review of documents submitted. Section 34(1) cast an obligation on the Registrar to issue a Certificate of Incorporation, normally within 7 days of the receipt of documents. A Private Limited Company can start its business immediately on receiving the Certificate of Incorporation.
DOCUMENTS / FORMS REQUIRED AFTER INCORPORATION:
Form Name Event for which form is required to submit Due date of filing Whether fixed rate of additional fee is required as per Table 1b
FORM 18 Registered office Change Notice Within 30 Days of event Y
FORM 29 Consent to act as Director Within 30 Days of event Y
FORM 32 Changes In Director /Manager Within 30 Days of event Y
FORM 5 Increase in Share Capital /Members Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 23 Registration of Resolution / Agreement Within 30 days of event Y
SCHEDULE V Annual Return Within 60 Days of AGM Y
SCHEDULE VI Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account Within 30 Days of AGM Y
FORM 8 Creation / Modification of Charges Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 13 Register of Charges NA N
FORM17 Particulars for satisfaction of charges Within 30 Days of event Y
SCHEDULE IV IV Statement in Lieu of Prospectus Y
FORM 7C Time extension of Share Transfer NA N
FORM 21 Notice of Court / CLB Order NA
FORM 2 Return of Allotment Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 7B Share Transfer form NA N
FORM U/S 43A Conversion of Public to Private application N
FORM 22 Statutory Report of a Public Company Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 55 Charge Created by a foreign company Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 3 Particular of Contract Relating to Share allotted for consideration on than cash Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 10 Particulars of Series of Debentures Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 20 A Commencement of New Business Declaration of Compliance Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 23AA Address at which Books of Accounts of Company are maintained Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 1AA Director/Person responsible under section 5(f/g) Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 1AB Consent of the Person under section 5(f/g) of charged by the Board with responsibility Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 1AC Withdrawal of Consent by Person / Director under section 5(f/g) Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 15 Notice of Appointment of / Appointment of reviver/Manager Within 30 days from event Y