An International Conference on PRECISION, MESO, MICRO, AND NANO ENGINEERING December 13-15, 2013,
Kerala, India
email : copen8


First COPEN was hosted by Indian Institute of Technology Madras in the year 2000. Subsequent editions were organized by PSG College of Technology Coimbatore in 2002, Central Manufacturing Institute Bangalore in 2003, Jadavpur University Kolkata in 2005, College of Enginering Trivandrum in 2007,PSG College of Technology and Amrita School of Engineering Coimbatore in 2009, and College of Engineering Pune in 2011. The eighth in the series is scheduled to be held during 13-15 December 2013 at NIT Calicut, Kerala, India.


1. Prof. K.P. Rajurkar K.P. Rajurkar, a distinguished Professor of Engineering at the College of Engineering University of Nebraska-Lincoln, is the founder and Director of the Center for Nontraditional Manufacturing Research and Professor of Mechanical and Martials Engineering. He served as the interim Chairman of the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering department. He served as Program Director of Manufacturing Machines and Equipment at the National Science Foundation. He was Chairman of the Manufacturing Systems Engineering Graduate Program of the College of Engineering (1988-99). He is a Fellow of ASME, SME and International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP). He has more than 130 refereed publications and nearly 125 technically edited papers which were published in conference proceedings. His research specializes in macro, micro and nano scale machining. He has received several awards for his research, teaching and service.

2. Prof. Mustafizur Rahman Mustafizur Rahman is currently with the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the National University of Singapore. His research interests include Ultra-precision machining, micro/nano machining, design and development of machine tools and devices for micro/nano machining, and high speed machining of difficult-to-machine materials. Some of his latest research areas are: Hybrid simultaneous EDM/ECM, Ductile mode machining of brittle materials, Machining of freeform features based on Digital Images. He has received William Jonson Gold Medal for Life Time Achievement in Material Processing Research and Teaching in 2009, the Leading Edge Manufacturing Achievement Award from the JSME in 2005, and IES Prestigious Engineering Achievement Award in 2003, A M Strickland Prize from IMechE in 2009. He has authored more than 400 journal and conference papers.

3. Prof. Shiv Gopal Kapoor

Shiv Gopal KapoorDr. Shiv Gopal Kapoor, a distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering at COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN. For almost thirty (30) years he is doing research in the areas of manufacturing process modeling and process automation. For the past ten years, with other colleagues at UIUC and Northwestern, he has been engaged in laying the foundation of a new manufacturing paradigm related to micro/meso-scale mechanical manufacturing. He honored with S. M. Wu Research Implementation Award, 2010, Blackall Machine Tool and Gage Award (for best research paper), American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2008, Education Award, Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), 2005, Grayce Wicall Gauthier Chair in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 2005-date, Distinguished Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, 2005-2009, William T. Ennor Manufacturing Technology Award, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003

4. Prof. Shreyes N. Melkote

MelkoteDr. Shreyes N. Melkote is the Morris M. Bryan, Jr., Professor for Advanced Manufacturing Systems in the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech. He also serves as Associate Director of the Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute. Dr. Melkote’s current research activities are in precision machining, photovoltaic manufacturing, hybrid micromanufacturing, and wireless process monitoring. He received his B.Tech. (Hons.) degree from I.I.T. Kharagpur in India and his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Michigan Technological University in 1993. He did post-doctoral work at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign prior to joining the Georgia Tech faculty in 1995. Dr. Melkote is a recipient of several honors including the ASME Blackall Machine Tool and Gage Award, the SME Dell K. Allen Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award and several Best Paper Awards at leading ASME and SME conferences. He is Fellow of the ASME, an Associate Member of the CIRP, and Secretary of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of the SME (NAMRI/SME).

5. Prof. Satish T.S. Bukkapatnam

satish.bmpDr. Satish Bukkapatnam, currently working as a Professor inOklahoma State University,School of Industrial Engineering and Management. He had served as an Assistant Professor at the University of Southern California Los Angeles, and as a summer faculty consultant at the Naval Research Lab, Washington DC. His research in Sensor-based Modeling is a fundamentally new approach to improve quality and integrity of precision manufacturing machines and processes . His research thus far has yielded 25 publications in peer-reviewed journals, and 20 publications in refereed conference proceedings. This research has been the basis for 4 PhD theses He has developed courses in Manufacturing and Information Systems as offshoots from this research. He was a recipient of Alpha Pi Mu/ Omega Rho Outstanding Teacher of the Year in Industrial Systems Engineering, USC, and Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award from the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

6. Prof. Suhas Joshi Suhas S. Joshi, currently Professor in Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. His research areas are Modeling and development of micro-machining processes, Modeling of precision and ultra-precision machining processes. He worked as assistant manager in Tata locomotive and company, assistant manager in Kennametal, then he joined as a assistant professor in mechanical engineering department in IIT Bombay.He served as Associate Editor, Transactions of ASME, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering (2007- 2012), Associate Technical Editor, Machining Science and Technology, Taylor and Francis Publications (2010-13), Guest Editor, Special issue on "Electric Discharge- based Multi-scale Machining Processes and Systems", ‘International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems’ Inderscience Publishers (2011), Editorial Board Member, ‘International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems’ Inderscience Publishers

7. Prof. Nilesh J Vasa N. J. Vasa , currently working as Head of Department of Engineering Design in Indian Institute of Technology Madras. He has the memberships in Optical Society of America (OSA), Laser Society of Japan , Indian Laser Association (ILA), International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). His research areas are Precision Engineering and Instrumentation, MEMS device, Laser technology, Remote sensing and opto-mechatronics device.



It is not so easy to change the wallpaper of the laptops UP chief minister Akhilesh Yadav distributed. The wallpaper depicting Akhilesh and his father Mulayam Singh Yadav, if changed, may lead to crashing of the entire system.

That’s what most of the students found when they tried to do so. In fact, that was the first thing some of the students tried after getting the lap tops. The wallpaper happened to be in-built and tamper-proof. Hence it can’t be changed, report said.

According to reports when some local HP vendors tried to change the wall paper, the the operating system, Linux, got wiped out and the system crashed.

Officials in the UP Electronic Corporation Limited, the agency that distributed the laptops, advised users not to tamper with the wallpaper. “It can lead to crashes,” an official said. The UPECL official, however, said that the machine comes with a year warranty and in case of any snags beneficiaries may contact the office of MD UPECL.

Students also tried to make quick bucks by selling off the lap tops to the local vendors. However, most of them turned down the offer.

District administration officials said that they were monitoring the lap top. They warned the those caught selling or buying the machines would be prosecuted as per the agreement signed in the registration forms.

GATE 2013 Answer Key for All Branches – EC, CS, ME, IN, CE, EE

Guys hope you all did the gate 2013 exam well. Some may feel difficult and some may feel easy, mostly its depends on your level of preparation. Few prepare well for the exam and could not do the exam well. These are all few categories of people but all are keen to know their results. So here i am sharing the gate 2013 answer key prepared from various gate coaching institute. Guys this answer key is not accurate, some answers in the key may be wrong, it is on your own risk.

ACE GATE 2013 Answer Key

Electronics And Communication Engineering Download Answer KEY

Electrical Engineering Download Answer KEY

Computer Science & Information Technology Will be updated very soon

Mechanical Engineering Download Answer KEY

Production Engineering Download Answer KEY

Instrumentation Engineering Will be updated very soon

GATE 2013 Answer Key by GATE Forum

Electronics And Communication Engineering Link 1 Link 2 Will be updated soon
Computer Science & Information Technology Link 1 Link 2 Will be updated soon
Mechanical Engineering Link 1 Link 2 Link
Electrical Engineering Link 1 Link 2 Will be updated soon
Instrumentation Engineering Will be updated soon Will be updated soon Will be updated soon

The GATE Academy GATE 2013 Answer Key






Steps to To register a company as per Govt orders

To register a company, you need to first apply for a Director Identification Number (DIN) which can be done by filing eForm for acquiring the DIN. You would then need to acquire your Digital Certificate and register the same on the portal. Thereafter, you need to get the company name approved by the Ministry. Once the company name is approved , you can register the company by filing the incorporation form depending on the type of company

(Use quick links available on left panel in case steps are known)

Step 1 : Application For DIN

The concept of a Director Identification Number (DIN) has been introduced for the first time with the insertion of Sections 266A to 266G of Companies (Amendment) Act, 2006. As such, all the existing and intending Directors have to obtain DIN within the prescribed time-frame as notified.
You need to file eForm DIN-1 in order to obtain DIN. To get more information about the same click Director Identification Number

Step 2 : Acquire/ Register DSC

The Information Technology Act, 2000 provides for use of Digital Signatures on the documents submitted in electronic form in order to ensure the security and authenticity of the documents filed electronically. This is the only secure and authentic way that a document can be submitted electronically. As such, all filings done by the companies under MCA21 e-Governance programme are required to be filed with the use of Digital Signatures by the person authorised to sign the documents.

Acquire DSC -A licensed Certifying Authority (CA) issues the digital signature. Certifying Authority (CA) means a person who has been granted a license to issue a digital signature certificate under Section 24 of the Indian IT-Act 2000.

Register DSC -Role check for Indian companies is to be implemented in the MCA application. Role check can be performed only after the signatories have registered their Digital signature certificates (DSC) with MCA. To know about it click Register a DSC

Step 3 : New User Registration

To file an eForm or to avail any paid service on MCA portal, you are first required to register yourself as a user in the relevant user category, such as registered and business user. To register now click New User Registration

Step 4 : Incorporate a Company

Apply for the name of the company to be registered by filing Form1A for the same. After that depending upon the proposed company type file required incorporation forms listed below.

  • Form 1 : Application or declaration for incorporation of a company
  • Form 18 : Notice of situation or change of situation of registered office
  • Form 32 : Particulars of appointment of managing director, directors, manager and secretary and the changes among them or consent of candidate to act as a managing director or director or manager or secretary of a company and/ or undertaking to take and pay for qualification shares

Once the form has been approved by the concerned official of the Ministry, you will receive an email regarding the same and the status of the form will get changed to Approved. To know more about eFiling process click "All About eFiling"

Steps to be taken to get incorporated a private limited Company

Steps to be taken to get incorporated a private limited Company:
Select, in order of preference, a few suitable names, not less than four, indicative of the main objects of the company. Naming Guidelines
Ensure that the name does not resemble the name of any other company already registered and also does not violate the provisions of Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950.
Apply to the concerned ROC to ascertain the availability of a name in the General Rules and Forms along with a fee of Rs.1000/- If the proposed name is not available apply for a fresh name on the same application.
Arrange for the drafting of the Memorandum and Articles of Association by the solicitors, the vetting of the same by the ROC and the printing of the same.
Arrange for the stamping of the Memorandum and Articles with the appropriate stamp duty.
Get the Memorandum and Articles signed by at least two subscribers in his own hand, his father’s name, occupation, address and the number of shares subscribed for and witnessed by atleast one person.
Ensure that the Memorandum and Articles are dated after the date of stamping.
Get the following forms duly filled up and signed:

o Declaration of Compliance
o Notice of the situation of the registered office of the company
o Particulars of the Director, Manager or Secretary

Present the following documents to the ROC with the filing fee and the registration fee:

o The stamped and signed copies of the Memorandum and Articles of Association (3 copies).
o Form-1, 18 & 32 in duplicate.
o Any agreement referred to in the M & A.
o Any agreement proposed to be entered into with any individual for appointment as Managing
or whole time Director.
o Name availability letter issued by the ROC.
o Power of Attorney from the subscribers in favour of any person for making corrections on their
behalf in the documents and papers filed for registration.
o Pay the Registration and Filing Fee by Demand Draft/Banker’s Cheque if it exceeds Rs.1000/-
o Obtain the Certificate of Incorporation from ROC.

Steps to be taken to get incorporated a public limited Company:
Consent of Directors to act as such in Form No.29.
Arrange for payment of application and allotment money by Directors on shares taken or agreed to be taken.
File the Statement in Lieu of Prospectus with the ROC in schedule-iii of the Companies Act.
File a declaration in Form-20 duly signed by one of the Directors.
Obtain the Certificate of Commencement of Business.

Establishing a Private Limited Company in India

Private Limited Company
• About Private Limited Company
• Advantages Private Limited Company
• Requirements in Formation of a Private Limited Company
• Major Steps involved for incorporation of a company
Getting DSC
Getting DIN
Name Search and application for Name Availability.
Drafting of Bye Laws (MOA & AOA)
List of documents and forms required in Company Registration
• Various Forms to be filed & circumstances
Advantages of Private Limited Company
The advantages of incorporating a private limited company are as follows:
1 Your Risk in the business minimizes:
The major mistake committed by small business people is mixing of business money and personal money. Income and debts from the business are mixed with personal funds. If the business is profitable proprietor will be benefited. If the business incur loss proprietor will be affected.
When you are creating a private limited company, what you are doing is that, you are creating a lifeless separate entity. You are personally not associating with the business but professionally associating with the business. You need not pay the debts personally. The owner and share holders are not personally liable. Hence it is called Limited Liability Company. Your responsibility is limited. Hence by creating a Limited Liability Company, your personal risk is minimized to the larger extent.
2 Your Tax burden Reduces:
While Sole proprietorship and partnerships pay income tax, Companies pay Corporation tax on their taxable profits. There are many allowances and tax- deductible costs that can be offset against the profits of a company. That means Tax would be paid after deducting many costs incurred by you. In addition to that the current level of Corporation Tax is lower than income tax rates.
3 Your Social appeal and reputation enhances:
With the formation of company, you are declaring to the people that you are serious about the business and its continuity. Lending from the banks is also easier. Banks provide loans against the security of the company’s assets. The greatest advantage is that you can build right team of people. Quality workforce is not hesitant to be part of the company, because of their sense of security.
4 Your big dream realizes:
Big project requires big investment. Few individual efforts cannot generate trust, to get the required investments. Qualified people also not show interest in you. Formation of private limited company multiplies the borrowing capacity of the organization and also secures the deposits and loans from Banks and financial institutions.
5 Your multiple assets bring multiple advantages:
You play multiple roles and get multiple advantages. As a director you receive remuneration, as a share holder you receive dividend, as a lessor you receive rent etc.
6 Your name remains in the history:
People may join or leave the company, but the company is permanent. Whether or not you are there your dream enterprise exists eternally, unless it is dissolved.
7 Your Wealth creation skills leverages:
The secret to wealth building is making use of human resources and finical resources. This blending of the resources is possible only with the formation of the company. You can accumulate huge investment from the share holders and business debt from the lenders. Share holders do not fear much, because their risk is limited to the extent of their share.
8 Your Transfer of the company is easy:
In case you want get away from the company you can do it very easily. You can transfer the entire share holding to the intended people as an ongoing concern. This change of ownership saves the time and money and also stamp duty. The major disadvantage of the private limited company is maintenance and cost of accounts. You also need to follow various statutory regulations. Before taking the decision weigh the pros and cons of forming a private limited company. But your big dreams not become reality without formation of the Company.
About Private Limited Company
Company Law defines a private company as one which—
1 has a minimum paid-up share capital of Rs. 1 Lakh or such higher capital as may be prescribed and
2 by its Articles of Association
3 restricts the right of transfer of its share
4 limits the number of its members to 50 which will not include:
a members who are employees of the company and
b members who are ex-employees of the company and were members while in such employment and who have continued to be members after ceasing to be employees
5 prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares or debentures of the company and
6 prohibits any invitation or acceptance of deposits from persons other than its members, directors or their relatives.
Requirements in Formation of a Private Limited Company
Minimum Requirement to be fulfilled to Form a Private Limited Company:
Two promoters (Shareholders)
Two directors
Authorised capital of Rs.1,00,000
DIN (Director Identification Number) for all the Directors
DSC (Digital Signature Certificate) for one of the Directors is required.
Note: The directors and shareholders can be same person
Know About Digital Signature
What is a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC)?

The Information Technology Act, 2000 provides for use of Digital Signatures on the documents submitted in electronic form in order to ensure the security and authenticity of the documents filed electronically. This is the only secure and authentic way that a document can be submitted electronically. As such, all filings done by the companies under MCA21 e-Governance programme are required to be filed with the use of Digital Signatures by the person authorised to sign the documents.

Pay Attention

You can use only the valid Digital Signatures issued to you. However it is not lawful to use digital signature of some one else by way of impersonation.

Certification Agencies:

Office of the Controller of Certification Agencies (CCA) under the provisions of IT Act, 2000 appoints Certification Agencies. A total of seven Certification Agencies have been authorised by the CCA to issue the Digital Signature Certificates (DSCs). The details of these Certification Agencies are available on the portal of the Ministry of Corporate affairs.

Class of DSC:

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has stipulated a Class-II or above category signing certificate for e-filings under MCA21. A person who already has the specified DSC for any other application can use the same for filings under MCA21 and is not required to obtain a fresh DSC.

Getting DIN

The concept of a Director Identification Number (DIN) has been introduced for the first time with the insertion of Sections 266A to 266G of Companies (Amendment) Act, 2006. As such, all the existing and intending Directors have to obtain DIN within the prescribed time-frame as notified.

Before you fill-in applications for DIN please remember following common causes of REJECTIONS:
Filing application for IEC.
Applicant’s name and father’s name mentioned in abbreviated form. – The Name should be expanded even if the ID proof contains the name in abbreviated form.
Mismatch in the Name and Father’s Name in DIN form with the ID (Identity) proof enclosed. – Any mismatch in Name, including spelling mistake, may lead to rejection of application. Minor spelling deviations in the father’s name may be accepted, if such deviations do not materially impact the name.
Prefixes like Mr. / Ms. / Kumari / Shri etc. used in the applicant’s name.
Residence proofs like: Bank Statements, Electricity Bill, Telephone Bill, Utility bills etc. submitted are older than 2 months of submitting the application for verification OR such documents are in the name of some other person, for example father or spouse.
The supporting documents are not duly attested i.e. Name, Designation, Membership/ Practicing certificate number etc. are not clearly indicated. – If the seal/ stamp do not contain membership/ practicing certificate number, same may be recorded by hand.
Passport / Driving License / Identity proofs etc attached are expired. – Only such documents which are currently valid should be attached.
Name Search and application for Name Availability.
The first step in the formation of a company is the approval of the name by the Registrar of Companies (ROC) in the State/Union Territory in which the company will maintain its Registered Office. This approval is provided subject to certain conditions: for instance
There should not be an existing company by the same name.
The last words in the name are required to be "Private Ltd."
The application should mention at least four suitable names of the proposed company, in order of preference.
Once a name is approved, it is valid for a period of sixty days, within which time Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association together with miscellaneous documents should be filed. If one is unable to do so, an application may be made for renewal of name by paying additional fees.

The following information is required for seeking name approval.

1 Name & address of the applicant (one of the promoters) for communications to be made by Registrar of Companies (ROC).
2 Proposed name of the company and Alternative names (4to 6 names)
3 Names of the proposed first directors – minimum 2.
4 Addresses, dates of birth, father’s name of the proposed directors
5 Authorised Share Capital – minimum INR 100000
6 Main objects of the company in brief.
7 Address of Registered office of the proposed company. If a place is not finalized, this information can be given at the time of incorporation.
8 Address of the nearest police station of the proposed registered address of the company.
Drafting of Bye Laws (MOA & AOA)
The Memorandum of Association is a document that sets out the constitution of the company. It contains, amongst others, the main objectives, incidental or ancillary objectives for the attainment of the main objectives, other objectives and the scope of activity of the company and also describes the relationship of the company with the outside world.

The Articles of Association contain the rules and regulations of the company for the management of its internal affairs. While the Memorandum specifies the objectives and purposes for which the Company has been formed, the Articles lay down the rules and regulations for achieving those objectives and purposes. It also states the authorized share capital of the proposed company and the names of its first / permanent directors.

Required Various Documents/ Forms
Following documents/ forms need to be submitted along with requisite fee which is based on the amount of authorized capital as under:-
1 Form 1A: Availability of Name for a New Company.
2 Form No.1: Application or declaration for incorporation of a company along with MOA & AOA
3 Form No.18: This is a form to be filed by one of the directors of the company informing the ROC the registered office of the proposed company.
4 Form No.29: This is a consent obtained from all the proposed directors of the proposed company to act as directors of the proposed company. (Not required in case of private company).
5 Form No. 32 – This is a form stating the fact of appointment of the proposed directors on the board of directors from the date of incorporation of the proposed company and is signed by one of the proposed directors.
6 Name approval letter in original.
7 Power of Attorney signed by all the subscribers of MOA authorizing one of the subscribers or any other person to act on their behalf for the purpose of incorporation and accepting the certificate of incorporation.
8 Power of Attorney in case of a subscriber who has appointed another person to sign the MOA on his behalf. Filing fees as may be applicable
9 Any agreement referred to in the Memorandum & Articles.
10 Any agreement proposed to be entered into with any individual for appointment as Managing or whole time Director.
11 Declaration of Compliance by an advocate or company secretary or chartered accountant or director, manager or secretary of the company
12 Power of Attorney authorizing a person, on behalf of subscribers, any documents and papers filed for registration. The power of attorney should be given on Non-Judicial stamp paper of appropriate value and shall be submitted to the Registrar
Getting Incorporation Certificate
The ROC will issue a Certificate of Incorporation after careful review of documents submitted. Section 34(1) cast an obligation on the Registrar to issue a Certificate of Incorporation, normally within 7 days of the receipt of documents. A Private Limited Company can start its business immediately on receiving the Certificate of Incorporation.
Form Name Event for which form is required to submit Due date of filing Whether fixed rate of additional fee is required as per Table 1b
FORM 18 Registered office Change Notice Within 30 Days of event Y
FORM 29 Consent to act as Director Within 30 Days of event Y
FORM 32 Changes In Director /Manager Within 30 Days of event Y
FORM 5 Increase in Share Capital /Members Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 23 Registration of Resolution / Agreement Within 30 days of event Y
SCHEDULE V Annual Return Within 60 Days of AGM Y
SCHEDULE VI Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account Within 30 Days of AGM Y
FORM 8 Creation / Modification of Charges Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 13 Register of Charges NA N
FORM17 Particulars for satisfaction of charges Within 30 Days of event Y
SCHEDULE IV IV Statement in Lieu of Prospectus Y
FORM 7C Time extension of Share Transfer NA N
FORM 21 Notice of Court / CLB Order NA
FORM 2 Return of Allotment Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 7B Share Transfer form NA N
FORM U/S 43A Conversion of Public to Private application N
FORM 22 Statutory Report of a Public Company Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 55 Charge Created by a foreign company Within 30 days of event Y
FORM 3 Particular of Contract Relating to Share allotted for consideration on than cash Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 10 Particulars of Series of Debentures Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 20 A Commencement of New Business Declaration of Compliance Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 23AA Address at which Books of Accounts of Company are maintained Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 1AA Director/Person responsible under section 5(f/g) Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 1AB Consent of the Person under section 5(f/g) of charged by the Board with responsibility Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 1AC Withdrawal of Consent by Person / Director under section 5(f/g) Within 30 days from event Y
FORM 15 Notice of Appointment of / Appointment of reviver/Manager Within 30 days from event Y

Liverpool Transfer News: 5 Latest Names Linked with January Moves to Anfield

Despite something of a Reds resurgence in recent weeks, Liverpool are continually being linked with a number of potential signings in the upcoming January transfer window.

Reports suggest Brendan Rodgers is keen to strengthen a number of areas of the squad, from the defence right through to his rather depleted forward line.

This article takes a look at five of the latest names to be linked with a January move to Anfield, assessing the likelihood of these transfers and whether or not they will be beneficial to Liverpool FC.

Lacina Traore

The Mirror reported this one in the wake of Liverpool’s 1-0 defeat to Anzhi Makhachkala in the Europa League.

Lacina Traore hit an impressive winner in the away leg in Russia, prompting alleged interest from the Reds as well as Italian side Udinese.

Traore’s physical presence would certainly appear to be suited to the English game, and at 22 years of age, his acquisition could be a sensible investment from a more long-term perspective.

However, he has only been at Anzhi for five months, so a move away from the club would appear somewhat premature, particularly as his contract runs for another three-and-a-half years.

Maybe next summer this one could come to fruition, but as far as a January move goes, it would seem a little too soon for the big Ivorian to make the move to Anfield.

Ali Al-Habsi

Another story from the Mirror, this time linking the Reds with a £7 million move for Wigan Athletic goalkeeper Ali Al-Habsi.

In just over two years at Wigan, the Omani stopper has steadily developed into a solid player for Roberto Martinez’s side and is reportedly attracting interest from Arsenal as well.

With Pepe Reina suffering from injuries as well as a slight loss of form, Liverpool’s options in goal are not as strong as they once were. But nonetheless, the Spaniard remains a quality No. 1 and so if Al-Habsi were to sign, I find it hard to see him being able to keep Reina out of the side.

If the Reds were to sign a replacement goalkeeper, it would need to be one of the top names in the game to mark any improvement on their current options.

Unfortunately, Al-Habsi is perhaps not yet at such a standard.

Will Hughes

Will Hughes is one of the hottest young talents in England right now, with Liverpool, Manchester City and Arsenal all reportedly interested in the Derby County teenager.

The 17-year-old has impressed in his performances this season, while his club are also said to be under pressure to cash-in due to financial troubles.

With demand so high for Hughes’ signature, it would appear difficult for Liverpool to secure a deal ahead of competition from some of England’s top sides.

But he would arguably feature more often for the Reds than if he were to sign for Man City, for example, so in this sense Anfield could well be an attractive prospect to the youngster.

If Rodgers were to acquire Hughes’ services, though, expect his initial impact to be fairly minimal, as this transfer would certainly seem to be one for the future.

Giuseppe Rossi

Metro report Liverpool’s interest in a January swoop for Italian marksman Giuseppe Rossi, though the Villarreal forward is currently sidelined until March with a knee ligament injury.

As a result, the deal would supposedly be much cheaper than many other options, but to sign a player available for just two months of the campaign would appear wholly illogical.

At just 25 years of age, he could contribute in later seasons if his move were to materialize, but after two serious knee injuries already in his career, Rossi’s signing would represent a huge gamble.

With Inter Milan allegedly in the running for the Italian’s signature as well, I feel it would be wise for Liverpool to let the Nerazzurri have their man as there are far better options available for the Reds.

Cristian Tello

According to the Daily Star, Cristian Tello’s contract talks at the Nou Camp have broken down, putting the Reds on alert as well as Premier League rivals Arsenal.

Tello broke into the Barcelona first XI last term with seven goals in 22 games in all competitions, and has continued to feature in the current campaign.

The Spanish winger’s reluctance to extend his deal is said to be due to the release clause in his contract. Tello is wary of being “priced out of a move” should he fall out of favor with Tito Villanova at a later date; a perfectly rational outlook for the 21-year-old.

If such issues between the player and his club remain, Liverpool should definitely make an offer for the starlet.

With age on his side and an obvious abundance of talent, Tello would be a great addition to the Liverpool squad and arguably one of the best moves that the Reds could make.

But what do you think of these potential transfers?

Comment below with your thoughts on the possible arrivals, as well as which signings the club should pursue and which they should cool their interest in.

Free and Open Internet

A free and open world depends on a free and open Internet, but not all governments agree. (Think China, Syria, Russia, Iran—just a few of the more than 40 countries that filter online content.)

Governments are trying to use a closed-door meeting of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to regulate the Internet via a decades-old treaty.

Many proposed changes to the treaty could increase censorship and threaten innovation.

The ITU—where only governments have a voice—is the wrong place to make decisions about the future of the Internet. Internet policy should work like the Internet: open and inclusive.

People around the world are standing up for freedom, and you can too.

Please be a part of this if you believe in a free and open internet yourself.

Encoding Many Channels on the Same Frequency through Radio Vorticity & OAM Techniques

Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) of the transmitted electromagnetic wave has recently been proposed as a great potential of improving the spectral efficiency (capacity) of radio transmissions. OAM accounts for the phase front of the transmitted wave by providing independent phase states, thus additional modes of propagation (degrees of freedom) resulting in independent simultaneous wireless radio links. It is practically possible to use two beams of incoherent radio waves, transmitted on the same frequency but encoded in two different orbital angular momentum states, to simultaneously transmit two independent radio channels. In principle, this modern radio technique offers the implementation of an infinite number of channels in a given fixed bandwidth without even using polarization, multiport or dense coding techniques. This results in innovative techniques in radio science and entirely new models in radio communication protocols that might offer a solution to the problem of radio-band deficit and congestion.

Muhsin V Muhammed
NIT Calicut

MvM Seminar report B090001EC.pdf